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Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s Disease 150 150 omie

Key Findings:

The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of motor dysfunction (2009)
  • “There is evidence that cannabinoid-based medicines… might be beneficial in basal ganglia disorders, namely Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD).”
  • These benefits not only include the alleviation of specific motor symptoms [e.g. choreic movements..bradykinesia..and tremor], but also the delay of disease progression due to the neuroprotective properties demonstrated for cannabinoids (e.g. CB1 agonists reduce excitotoxicity; CB2 agonists limit the toxicity of reactive microglia; and antioxidant cannabinoids attenuate oxidative damage)
Survey on Cannabis Use in Parkinson’s Disease: Subjective Improvement of Motor Symptoms (2004)
  • “Patients using cannabis for at least 3 months reported significantly more often a mild or substantial alleviation of their PD symptoms in general, improvement of resting tremor, bradykinesia, and muscle rigidity.”
  • “The late onset of cannabis action is noteworthy. Because most patients reported that improvement occurred approximately 2 months after the first use of cannabis, it is very unlikely that it could be attributed to a placebo reaction”
Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease: motor symptoms to neuroprotection. (2015)
  • Two important neuroprotective mechanisms are elicited by cannabinoids in experimental models of PD.
    • First, they decrease increased oxidative stress in PD, a mechanism that seems to be independent of any involvement of cannabinoid receptors.
    • Second, they increase density of CB2 cannabinoid receptors, mainly in reactive microglia, which regulate micro-functions of glial cells and homeostasis of surrounding neurons
  • “Reducing glutamate release is a prominent effect of cannabinoid agonists that might affirm their role as potential anti-excitotoxic compounds for use as PD therapeutics.”
Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson’s Disease Patients in Colorado (2015)
  • “While only a small number of participants in our study reported use of cannabis for PD, those that did reported benefits in mood (56%), sleep (56%), motor symptoms (22%), and quality of life (22%).”
  • “Our data suggests that PD patients in our cohort tend to utilize cannabis for its impact on nonmotor symptoms rather than motor symptoms, and it was rated as the most effective therapy for sleep and mood improvement amongst all CAMs [Complementary and alternative medicine]”
Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in basal ganglia disorders. (2007)
  • “They [cannabinoids] are able to decrease inflammation by acting on glial processes that regulate neuronal survival and to restore blood supply to injured area by reducing the vasoconstriction produced by several endothelium-derived factors.”
  • “…cannabinoids may provide neuroprotection in different neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea, two chronic diseases that are originated as a consequence of the degeneration of specific nuclei of basal ganglia, resulting in a deterioration of the control of movement.”
Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) Treatment for Motor and Non–Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease: An Open-Label Observational Study (2014)
  • “Mean (SD) total score on the motor Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale score improved significantly …after cannabis consumption. Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement after treatment in tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia.”
  • “There was also significant improvement of sleep and pain scores. No significant adverse effects of the drug were observed. The study suggests that cannabis might have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of PD.”
Medical Cannabis in Parkinson Disease: Real-Life Patients’ Experience (2017)
  • Medical cannabis was found to improve symptoms of PD in the initial stages of treatment and did not cause major adverse effects in this pilot, 2-center, retrospective survey.”
Drug Dependency
Drug Dependency 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Physician Guide to Cannabis-Assisted Opioid Reduction. (2017)
Medical cannabis use is associated with decreased opiate medication use in a retrospective cross-sectional survey of patients with chronic pain. (2016)
  • “Cannabis use associated with 64% lower opioid use in chronic pain patients.”
  • “Cannabis use associated with increased quality of life in chronic pain patients.”
  • “Cannabis use associated with fewer medication side effects and medications used.”
Cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication: patient self-report. (2017)

  • “Cannabis can be an effective treatment for pain, greatly reduces the chance of dependence, and eliminates the risk of fatal overdose compared to opioid-based medications.”
Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. (2015)
  • CBD has several therapeutic properties on its own that could indirectly be useful in the treatment of addiction disorders, such as its protective effect on stress vulnerability and neurotoxicity.”
Cannabidiol does not display drug abuse potential in mice behavior (2018)
  • “These results show that CBD lacks activity as a drug of abuse and should stimulate the development of the basic and clinical studies needed to elucidate its potential therapeutic use for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and drug use disorders.”
Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. (2014)
  •  “Medical cannabis laws are associated with significantly lower state-level opioid overdose mortality rates.”
Role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in nicotine addiction: novel insights. (2015)
Project CBD: Additional Addiction Resources.
Migraines 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population (2016)
  • The frequency of migraine headache was decreased with medical marijuana use.
  • “Overall, 85.1% had decreased migraine frequency, with 39.7% reporting positive effects: prevention of or reduced headache frequency (19.8%) or aborted headache (11.6%)
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency reconsidered: current research supports the theory in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes.(2016) 
  • What if endocannabinoid levels are too low? It has been theorized that numerous mysterious disorders fit the description of “clinical endocannabinoid deficiency” (CED). Noteworthy among these are migraine, fibromyalgia and idiopathic bowel syndrome (IBS or “spastic colon”).
  •  The three conditions tend to affect the same individuals at various times of their lives, and are therefore termed “co-morbid.” 
  • All three are characterized by “central sensitization,” the concept that normal sensations in the brain are magnified to the point of becoming painful when they would not be to a person free from the affliction. The three disorders also benefit from treatment with cannabinoids according to patient testimonials.
Cannabinoids suitable for migraine prevention. (2017)
  •  “…cannabinoids reduced pain intensity among migraine patients by 43.5%. The same results were seen in cluster headache patients…”
Effects of anandamide in migraine: data from an animal model. (2011)
  • “The study confirms that a dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the development of migraine attacks and that a pharmacological modulation of CB receptors can be useful for the treatment of migraine pain.”
Fibromyalgia 150 150 admin
Key Research Findings
Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. (2011)
  • “Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain.”
  • “Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep.”
  • “There were no serious adverse effects. Adverse effects most commonly reported were generally well tolerated, mild to moderate in severity and led to withdrawal from the studies in only a few cases.”
  • “Overall there is evidence that cannabinoids are safe and modestly effective in neuropathic pain with preliminary evidence of efficacy in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.”
Cannabis Use in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Effect on Symptoms Relief and Health-Related Quality of Life (2011)
  • “This observational study provides information on the patterns of cannabis use for therapeutic purposes among a group of patients with FM. Most of them were middle-aged women that did not respond to current treatment and self-administered marijuana, devoid of medical advice.”
  • 28 people with fibromyalgia who were herbal cannabis users and 28 non-users, without differences in demographics and clinical variables, were compared. After two hours of cannabis use, there was a statistically significant reduction of pain and stiffness, enhancement of relaxation and an increase in somnolence and feeling of well-being (all P values < 0.001). 
Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. (2006)
  • Daily recorded pain of the people with fibromyalgia was significantly reduced over a three-month period.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC) Treatment in Chronic Central Neuropathic Pain and Fibromyalgia Patients: Results of a Multicenter Survey. (2009)
  • One case series of 172 participants reported from Germany included 32 people with fibromyalgia. On average, participants received delta 9-THC 7.5 mg over seven months.
  • “In our patient sample, THC treatment led to a significant reduction in pain intensity. Noteworthy, this effect could be observed when a mean daily dose of 7.5 mg THC was administered. This dosage shows high acceptance and efficacy.”
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency reconsidered: current research supports the theory in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes. (2016)
Sleep Disorders
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Key Research Findings

Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex®, a cannabis‐based medicine. (2007)
  • “Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I – III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile.”
  • “No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40– 50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients quality of life.”
Cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: a review of the literature. (2017)
  • “Initial work examining specific cannabinoids suggests a potential therapeutic effect of high-dose CBD and low-dose THC for sleep.
  • ECS is a critical system involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm sleep–wake cycle, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabinoids on sleep. The role of the ECS on circadian rhythms has been further supported by work demonstrating that a lack of normal sleep causes dysregulation within the ECS, while elevation in the ECS at the receptor level is involved in the homeostatic recovery of sleep after non-normal sleep.”
  • “CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness…”
Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. (1981)
  • Low-dose CBD has a stimulating effect, while high-dose CBD has a sedating effect.
  • In individuals with insomnia, results suggested that administration of 160 mg/day of CBD increased total sleep time and decreased the frequency of arousals during the night, while low-dose CBD has been associated with increased wakefulness
Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats. (2012)
  • CBD efficiently blocked anxiety-induced REM sleep suppression, but had little effect on the alteration of NREM sleep. Conclusively, CBD may block anxiety-induced REM sleep alteration via its anxiolytic effect, rather than via sleep regulation per se.”
Cannabis and Insomnia (2011)
  • “Among those who had reported trouble sleeping, 79% reported increased sleep quality after using cannabis.”
  • “Both those with sleep difficulties and those without reported a significant decrease in time to sleep after the use of cannabis. This suggests cannabis may be an effective treatment for insomnia.”
Effectiveness of cannabidiol oil for pediatric anxiety and insomnia as part of posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report. (2016)
  • “This case study provides clinical data that support the use of cannabidiol [CBD] oil as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with posttraumatic stress disorder.”
The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (2009)
  • The authors of this study found that treatment with nabilone produced a reduction in nightmare presence and intensity and increased participants’ hours of sleep per night.
Preliminary, Open-Label, Pilot Study of Add-On Oral D9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol in Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2014)
  • “The results show good tolerance and safety, reduction of PTSD hyperarousal symptoms, improved sleep quality and reduced frequency of nightmares.”
Cancer 150 150 admin

Anecdotal, preclinical, and clinical evidence attest to the broad protective role of our endocannabinoid system in preventing and suppressing chronic illnesses like cancer. Large randomized controlled trials and peer-reviewed studies across the world have shown that cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc) are effective for relieving some common symptoms of cancer, including  pain, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, & sleep.

Pre-clinical animal trials have produced promising data, revealing the ability of cannabinoids to selectively kill tumor cells, leaving healthy cells unharmed in a variety of cancer types. However, any anti-tumor effects appear to be largely dependent on cancer cell type and the potency and ratio of the different cannabinoids, primarily THC and CBD. It has become clear that cannabinoids can effectively alter the development of a cancer cells life cycle, from its formation, proliferation to its death. This is why it is CRUCIAL to remove the clinical research barriers surrounding cannabis in the U.S. so that more studies may begin to apply these pre-clinical findings to our own physiology and start to create standards for dosing recommendations for specific types of cancer.

According to a report in Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, cannabinoids “represent a new class of anticancer drugs that retard cancer growth, inhibit angiogenesis [the formation of new blood cells that feed a tumor] and the metastatic spreading of cancer cells.”

Key Research Findings

Learn more from the mounting evidence below:

The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. (2017)
  • This report rigorously reviewed over 10,000 scientific studies and concluded that: “In adults with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, oral cannabinoids are effective antiemetics.”
Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care (2016)
  • “Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite.”
A user’s guide to cannabinoid therapies in oncology (2016)
  •  “Patients with malignant disease, at all points of their disease trajectory, could be candidates for cannabinoid therapies whether as monotherapies or as adjuvants.”
Phytochemical Aspects and Therapeutic Perspective of Cannabinoids in Cancer Treatment (2017)
  • “A large body of evidence suggests that cannabinoids affect multiple signalling pathways involved in the development of cancer, displaying an anti‐proliferative, proapoptotic, anti‐angiogenic and anti‐metastatic activity on a wide range of cell lines and animal models of cancer.”
The current state and future perspectives of cannabinoids in cancer biology (2018)
  • This review includes a summary of currently ongoing clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.
Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. (2006)
  • “Delta-9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exhibits antitumor effects on various cancer cell types, but its use in chemotherapy is limited by its psychotropic activity.”
  • “We found that, surprisingly, cannabidiol [CBD] acted as a more potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth than THC and that cannabigerol [CBG] and cannabichromene [CBC] usually followed cannabidiol in the rank of potency.”
  • “In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising nonpsychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line, we have shown here that cannabidiol [CBD] and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo.”
Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids (2016)
  • “Cannabinoids impair tumour progression at various levels. Their most prevalent effect is the induction of cancer cell death by apoptosis and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. At least one of those actions has been demonstrated in almost all cancer cell types tested.”
  • “The use of combinational anticancer therapies has a number of theoretical advantages over single-agent strategies, because they allow for the simultaneous targeting of tumour growth, progression, and spread at various levels. In line with that idea, recent observations suggest that the combined administration of cannabinoids with other anticancer drugs acts synergistically to reduce tumour growth.”
  • “To summarize, cannabinoids induce tumour cell death and inhibit tumour angiogenesis and invasion in animal models of cancer, and there are indications that they act similarly in patients with glioblastoma…and show an acceptable safety profile.”
Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. (2012)
  • “In conclusion, our results indicate that CBD exerts a potent anti-angiogenic effect by widely affecting several pathways involved in this process. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells further suggests that CBD could represent a potential effective agent in cancer therapy”
Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. (2012)
  • Collectively, the non-psychoactive plant-derived cannabinoid CBD exhibits pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions in different types of tumours and may also exert anti-migratory, anti-invasive, anti-metastatic and perhaps anti-angiogenic properties. On the basis of these results evidence is emerging to suggest that CBD is a potent inhibitor of both cancer growth and spread.
  • “CBD behaves as a non toxic compound; indeed oral administration of CBD 700 mg day-1 for 6 weeks did not show any overt toxicity in humans suggesting its possible exploitation for prolonged treatment.”
  • “Additionally, experimental data showed that combined treatment with CBD and Delta-9 THC could be more effective in reducing cancer cell proliferation, suggesting that the co-administration may represent a better choice for cancer therapy.”
Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. (2010)
  • “THC:CBD combination showed a more promising efficacy profile than the THC extract alone. CBD may enhance the analgesic potential of THC… which may produce anti-inflammatory effects, along with its ability to inhibit immune cell migration. Additionally, CBD may modulate the potential unwanted effects of THC…which potentially would provide a better safety profile for the THC:CBD medication in chronic use.”
  • “The THC:CBD and the THC medications were well tolerated…The clinical response to pain with THC:CBD extract oromucosal spray has not demonstrated tolerance in several clinical trials of longer duration.”
  • “We can conclude that the observed reduction in pain scores is attributable to the positive analgesic effects of THC:CBD extract. This study shows that THC:CBD extract is efficacious for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids.”
Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.
Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound, inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87-MG and T98G glioma cells through a multitarget effect.
The combination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the anticancer effects of radiation in an orthotopic murine glioma model.Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.
Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.
Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition.
Project CBD: Cancer Resources.
Established and potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in oncology.
GI Issues
GI Issues 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. (2013)
  • “CBG was effective when given both before and after the inflammatory insult, suggesting a preventive and a curative (therapeutic) beneficial effect. Significant protective effects were achieved starting from the 1 mg/kg dose (preventive protocol) and 5 mg/kg (curative protocol).”
  • “Also, CBG exerts antioxidant effects in the inflamed gut as well as in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to oxidative stress. On the whole, these results could provide a pharmacological basis to explain, at least in part, the beneficial effects of Cannabis preparations observed in IBD patients using Cannabis.”
The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation. (2004)
  • “In conclusion, this study shows that the endogenous cannabinoid system is physiologically involved in the protection against excessive inflammation in the colon, both by dampening smooth muscular irritation caused by inflammation and by controlling cellular pathways leading to inflammatory responses.”
  • “These results strongly suggest that modulation of the physiological activity of the endogenous cannabinoid system during colonic inflammation might be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of several diseases characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.”
Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation. (2012)
  • “Cannabinoids can affect both the activity and the expression of TRPV1-4 channels, with various potential therapeutic applications, including in the gastrointestinal tract.”
Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system. (2011)
  • “…together with related studies published in other journals over the last 2 years, confirm that the ECS [endocannabinoid system] and related emerging signaling systems may play a fundamental role in the control of all aspects of GI physiology and pathology.”
The effects of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis. (2010)
  • “It is well known that cannabis possesses immunosuppressive properties and that the main component responsible for this profile of action is THC…. In support of this, THC was effective in attenuating autoimmune responses in an experimental model of diabetes (multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.”
  • “Importantly, CBD has been also demonstrated to possess potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties which, together with a lack of psychotropic activity and low toxicity, make it a very promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of inflammatory and pain associated disorders, including IBD. CBD is a very potent antioxidant, which results in reduction of the level of reactive oxygen species in the course of inflammation and protection from tissue damage.”
  • “Our results demonstrated that treatment with THC and CBD reduced inflammation and motility disturbances associated with colitis. The effects of THC alone and in combination with CBD were similar to and, in some aspects, better than those of sulphasalazine, suggesting potential value of phytocannabinoids for the treatment of IBD.”
Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis. (2009)
  • “In conclusion, our results show that the degree of intestinal inflammation caused by intracolonic administration of DNBS is substantially reduced by treatment of mice with the Cannabis-derived ingredient CBD.”
Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.
  • “…these results suggest, for the first time, that CBD, by modulating the glial-immune axis, regulates the fire up of the inflammatory reaction in the intestine thereby preventing the detrimental intestinal damage.”
  • “…in this study we demonstrate that during intestinal inflammation, CBD is able to control the inflammatory scenario and the subsequent intestinal apoptosis through the restoration of the altered glia-immune homeostasis. CBD is therefore regarded as a promising therapeutic agent that modulates the neuroimmune axis, which can be recognised as a new target in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disorders.”
Glaucoma 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Neuroprotective effect of (−) Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite. (2003)
  • “THC and CBD, are similarly potent antioxidants that protect neuron cultures from glutamate-induced cell death or oxidative stress.”
  • “Our results indicate that lipid peroxidation and ONOO formation play an important role in NMDA-induced retinal neurotoxicity and cell loss in the retina, and that THC and CBD, by reducing the formation of these compounds, are effective neuroprotectants. The present studies could form the basis for the development of new topical therapies for the treatment of glaucoma.
Potential roles of (endo)cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma: from intraocular pressure control to neuroprotection. (2008)
  • “Experimental findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system contributes to the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), by modulating both production and drainage of aqueous humor.”
  • ‘Molecules capable of interfering with the ocular endocannabinoid system could offer valid alternatives to the treatment of this disease, based not only on the reduction of IOP but also on neuroprotection.”
A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol. (1990)
  • “…both cannabinoids produced a two-to three-fold increase in aqueous outflow facility. These results suggest that cannabigerol and related cannabinoids may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of glaucoma.”
Autism 150 150 admin

In May of 2018, Autism was approved as one of the qualifying conditions to receive a Michigan Medical marijuana card. This addition was largely supported by Dr. Eden Wells, Michigan’s chief medical executive, who stated: “Though there is little long-term research on the effects of marijuana on people with autism, my clinical experience suggests the drug works as a balancing agent that allows autistic patients easily overwhelmed by stimuli to maintain ‘a meditative distance’ from the world.” 

Key Research Findings

Check out a few studies that examine the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for Autism:

Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy (2019)
  • “Cannabis in ASD patients appears to be well tolerated, safe and efective option to relieve symptoms associated with ASD.”
A Novel Approach to the Symptomatic Treatment of Autism. (2010)
  • “Parents of some autistic children report that cannabis eases behavioral problems more effectively than conventional pharmaceuticals. Their anecdotal evidence should be taken seriously by medical researchers.”
  • “’As a health writer and blogger, I was intrigued when a homeopath suggested medical marijuana. Cannabis has long-documented effects as an analgesic and an anxiety modulator. Best of all, it is safe. A publication by the Autism Research Institute described cases of reduced aggression, with no permanent side effects.'”
  • “Since we started him on his ‘special tea,’ J’s face, which is sometimes a mask of pain, has softened.”
Cannabidiol Based Medical Cannabis in Children with Autism- a Retrospective Feasibility Study (2018)
  • “Following the cannabis treatment, behavioral outbreaks were much improved or very much improved (on the CGIC scale) in 61% of patients. The anxiety and communication problems were much or very much improved in 39% and 47% respectively. Disruptive behaviors, were improved by 29%…Parents reported less stress as reflected in the APSI scores, changing by 33%…Adverse events included sleep disturbances (14%) irritability (9%) and loss of appetite (9%).”
  • “This preliminary study support the feasibility of CBD based medical cannabis as a promising treatment option for refractory behavioral problems in children with ASD.”
Use of dronabinol (delta-9-THC) in autism: A prospective single-case-study with an early infantile autistic child (2010)
  • At the end of the six months, the boy’s symptom severity significantly decreased in five different categories: hyperactivity, lethargy, irritability, stereotypic behavior, and inappropriate speech.
  • “This study showed that the use of dronabinol [delta-9 THC] may be able to reduce the symptoms of autism.”
Enhancement of Anandamide-Mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Corrects Autism-Related Social Impairment (2016)
  • “We recently uncovered a signaling mechanism by which the endocannabinoid anandamide mediates the action of oxytocin, a neuropeptide that is crucial for social behavior, to control social reward. Oxytocin signaling has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and social reward is a key aspect of social functioning that is thought to be disrupted in ASD.”
  • “We found that that social impairment is corrected in two distinct mouse models by increasing anandamide activity through FAAH inhibition.” [CBD has been found to act as an FAAH inhibitor]
The Endocannabinoid System and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models (2017)
  • “The endocannabinoid (EC) system represents a major neuromodulatory system involved in the regulation of emotional responses, behavioral reactivity to context, and social interaction. Furthermore, the EC system is also affected in conditions often present in subsets of patients diagnosed with ASD, such as seizures, anxiety, intellectual disabilities, and sleep pattern disturbances.”
  • “…any potential therapeutic approach is unlikely to involve a single targeted molecule.”
Deficient adolescent social behavior following early-life inflammation is ameliorated by augmentation of anandamide signaling. (2016)
  • “In conclusion, our results suggest that FAAH inhibitors may provide a novel approach for the treatment of social disorders. Particularly, in disorders with high amygdala output and altered eCB system components (e.g. ASD), FAAH inhibition could stabilize the eCB system and decrease symptoms. FAAH inhibitors have been tested previously in the fragile X mouse model of autism, and showed promising effects in alleviating symptoms.”
Endocannabinoid signaling in autism. (2015)
  • “As supported by the evidence presented in the previous sections in humans and animal models, any potential therapeutic approach is unlikely to involve a simple choice between activation versus inhibition of the eCB system to target specific features related to autism. Any such approach will need to be precisely tuned to the developmental timeline and to the specific pathogenetic underpinnings of autism in the single patient.”
Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders.
  • “In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an endocannabinoid-CB2 signaling dysregulation in autism, implying the endocannabinoid system may represent a new treatment opportunity for autism pharmacotherapy”
Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. (2013)
  • “Moreover, CB2R has an important role in the regulation of anxiolytic-like behavior and increased susceptibility to audiogenic seizures. In conclusion, our data point to regulation of the ECS [endocannabinoid system] and mTOR pathway as a potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches in FXS.”
Issue Brief on Autism Spectrum Disorder by Minnesota Health Department (2017)
Arthritis 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. (2006)
  • “In the first ever controlled trial of a CBM [Cannabis-based medicine] in RA, a significant analgesic effect was observed and disease activity was significantly suppressed following Sativex treatment.”
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.(2000)
  • “…these data show that CBD, through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, has a potent anti-arthritic effect in CIA [collagen-induced arthritis].”
  • “Its [CBD] efficacy when given orally renders it an attractive candidate for the treatment of RA. The experiments in the chronic CIA model show that prolonged treatment with CBD does not induce tolerance, a phenomenon often observed with cannabinoids”
Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.
  • “…by abolishing early inflammation with prophylactic treatment, CBD attenuates [reduces] central sensitisation and neuropathic pain development in OA.”
  • Conclusion: “…CBD may be a safe therapeutic to treat OA pain locally as well as block the acute inflammatory flares that drive disease progression and joint neuropathy”
Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. (2016)
  • CBD administered by a transdermal gel reduced joint swelling, immune cell infiltration, synovial membrane thickening, and the synthesis of proinflammatory biomarkers in the Freund complete adjuvant model of inflammatory arthritis.”
Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain. (2015)
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