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Migraines
Migraines 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Effects of Medical Marijuana on Migraine Headache Frequency in an Adult Population (2016)
  • The frequency of migraine headache was decreased with medical marijuana use.
  • “Overall, 85.1% had decreased migraine frequency, with 39.7% reporting positive effects: prevention of or reduced headache frequency (19.8%) or aborted headache (11.6%)
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency reconsidered: current research supports the theory in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes.(2016) 
  • What if endocannabinoid levels are too low? It has been theorized that numerous mysterious disorders fit the description of “clinical endocannabinoid deficiency” (CED). Noteworthy among these are migraine, fibromyalgia and idiopathic bowel syndrome (IBS or “spastic colon”).
  •  The three conditions tend to affect the same individuals at various times of their lives, and are therefore termed “co-morbid.” 
  • All three are characterized by “central sensitization,” the concept that normal sensations in the brain are magnified to the point of becoming painful when they would not be to a person free from the affliction. The three disorders also benefit from treatment with cannabinoids according to patient testimonials.
Cannabinoids suitable for migraine prevention. (2017)
  •  “…cannabinoids reduced pain intensity among migraine patients by 43.5%. The same results were seen in cluster headache patients…”
Effects of anandamide in migraine: data from an animal model. (2011)
  • “The study confirms that a dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the development of migraine attacks and that a pharmacological modulation of CB receptors can be useful for the treatment of migraine pain.”
Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia 150 150 admin
Key Research Findings
Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. (2011)
  • “Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain.”
  • “Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep.”
  • “There were no serious adverse effects. Adverse effects most commonly reported were generally well tolerated, mild to moderate in severity and led to withdrawal from the studies in only a few cases.”
  • “Overall there is evidence that cannabinoids are safe and modestly effective in neuropathic pain with preliminary evidence of efficacy in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.”
Cannabis Use in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Effect on Symptoms Relief and Health-Related Quality of Life (2011)
  • “This observational study provides information on the patterns of cannabis use for therapeutic purposes among a group of patients with FM. Most of them were middle-aged women that did not respond to current treatment and self-administered marijuana, devoid of medical advice.”
  • 28 people with fibromyalgia who were herbal cannabis users and 28 non-users, without differences in demographics and clinical variables, were compared. After two hours of cannabis use, there was a statistically significant reduction of pain and stiffness, enhancement of relaxation and an increase in somnolence and feeling of well-being (all P values < 0.001). 
Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. (2006)
  • Daily recorded pain of the people with fibromyalgia was significantly reduced over a three-month period.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC) Treatment in Chronic Central Neuropathic Pain and Fibromyalgia Patients: Results of a Multicenter Survey. (2009)
  • One case series of 172 participants reported from Germany included 32 people with fibromyalgia. On average, participants received delta 9-THC 7.5 mg over seven months.
  • “In our patient sample, THC treatment led to a significant reduction in pain intensity. Noteworthy, this effect could be observed when a mean daily dose of 7.5 mg THC was administered. This dosage shows high acceptance and efficacy.”
Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency reconsidered: current research supports the theory in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes. (2016)
Sleep Disorders
Sleep Disorders 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex®, a cannabis‐based medicine. (2007)
  • “Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I – III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile.”
  • “No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40– 50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients quality of life.”
Cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: a review of the literature. (2017)
  • “Initial work examining specific cannabinoids suggests a potential therapeutic effect of high-dose CBD and low-dose THC for sleep.
  • ECS is a critical system involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm sleep–wake cycle, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabinoids on sleep. The role of the ECS on circadian rhythms has been further supported by work demonstrating that a lack of normal sleep causes dysregulation within the ECS, while elevation in the ECS at the receptor level is involved in the homeostatic recovery of sleep after non-normal sleep.”
  • “CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness…”
Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. (1981)
  • Low-dose CBD has a stimulating effect, while high-dose CBD has a sedating effect.
  • In individuals with insomnia, results suggested that administration of 160 mg/day of CBD increased total sleep time and decreased the frequency of arousals during the night, while low-dose CBD has been associated with increased wakefulness
Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats. (2012)
  • CBD efficiently blocked anxiety-induced REM sleep suppression, but had little effect on the alteration of NREM sleep. Conclusively, CBD may block anxiety-induced REM sleep alteration via its anxiolytic effect, rather than via sleep regulation per se.”
Cannabis and Insomnia (2011)
  • “Among those who had reported trouble sleeping, 79% reported increased sleep quality after using cannabis.”
  • “Both those with sleep difficulties and those without reported a significant decrease in time to sleep after the use of cannabis. This suggests cannabis may be an effective treatment for insomnia.”
Effectiveness of cannabidiol oil for pediatric anxiety and insomnia as part of posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report. (2016)
  • “This case study provides clinical data that support the use of cannabidiol [CBD] oil as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with posttraumatic stress disorder.”
The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (2009)
  • The authors of this study found that treatment with nabilone produced a reduction in nightmare presence and intensity and increased participants’ hours of sleep per night.
Preliminary, Open-Label, Pilot Study of Add-On Oral D9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol in Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2014)
  • “The results show good tolerance and safety, reduction of PTSD hyperarousal symptoms, improved sleep quality and reduced frequency of nightmares.”
Cancer
Cancer 150 150 admin

Anecdotal, preclinical, and clinical evidence attest to the broad protective role of our endocannabinoid system in preventing and suppressing chronic illnesses like cancer. Large randomized controlled trials and peer-reviewed studies across the world have shown that cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc) are effective for relieving some common symptoms of cancer, including  pain, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, & sleep.

Pre-clinical animal trials have produced promising data, revealing the ability of cannabinoids to selectively kill tumor cells, leaving healthy cells unharmed in a variety of cancer types. However, any anti-tumor effects appear to be largely dependent on cancer cell type and the potency and ratio of the different cannabinoids, primarily THC and CBD. It has become clear that cannabinoids can effectively alter the development of a cancer cells life cycle, from its formation, proliferation to its death. This is why it is CRUCIAL to remove the clinical research barriers surrounding cannabis in the U.S. so that more studies may begin to apply these pre-clinical findings to our own physiology and start to create standards for dosing recommendations for specific types of cancer.

According to a report in Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, cannabinoids “represent a new class of anticancer drugs that retard cancer growth, inhibit angiogenesis [the formation of new blood cells that feed a tumor] and the metastatic spreading of cancer cells.”

Key Research Findings

Learn more from the mounting evidence below:

The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. (2017)
  • This report rigorously reviewed over 10,000 scientific studies and concluded that: “In adults with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, oral cannabinoids are effective antiemetics.”
Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care (2016)
  • “Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite.”
A user’s guide to cannabinoid therapies in oncology (2016)
  •  “Patients with malignant disease, at all points of their disease trajectory, could be candidates for cannabinoid therapies whether as monotherapies or as adjuvants.”
Phytochemical Aspects and Therapeutic Perspective of Cannabinoids in Cancer Treatment (2017)
  • “A large body of evidence suggests that cannabinoids affect multiple signalling pathways involved in the development of cancer, displaying an anti‐proliferative, proapoptotic, anti‐angiogenic and anti‐metastatic activity on a wide range of cell lines and animal models of cancer.”
The current state and future perspectives of cannabinoids in cancer biology (2018)
  • This review includes a summary of currently ongoing clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids as anticancer agents.
Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. (2006)
  • “Delta-9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exhibits antitumor effects on various cancer cell types, but its use in chemotherapy is limited by its psychotropic activity.”
  • “We found that, surprisingly, cannabidiol [CBD] acted as a more potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth than THC and that cannabigerol [CBG] and cannabichromene [CBC] usually followed cannabidiol in the rank of potency.”
  • “In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising nonpsychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line, we have shown here that cannabidiol [CBD] and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo.”
Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids (2016)
  • “Cannabinoids impair tumour progression at various levels. Their most prevalent effect is the induction of cancer cell death by apoptosis and the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. At least one of those actions has been demonstrated in almost all cancer cell types tested.”
  • “The use of combinational anticancer therapies has a number of theoretical advantages over single-agent strategies, because they allow for the simultaneous targeting of tumour growth, progression, and spread at various levels. In line with that idea, recent observations suggest that the combined administration of cannabinoids with other anticancer drugs acts synergistically to reduce tumour growth.”
  • “To summarize, cannabinoids induce tumour cell death and inhibit tumour angiogenesis and invasion in animal models of cancer, and there are indications that they act similarly in patients with glioblastoma…and show an acceptable safety profile.”
Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. (2012)
  • “In conclusion, our results indicate that CBD exerts a potent anti-angiogenic effect by widely affecting several pathways involved in this process. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells further suggests that CBD could represent a potential effective agent in cancer therapy”
Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. (2012)
  • Collectively, the non-psychoactive plant-derived cannabinoid CBD exhibits pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions in different types of tumours and may also exert anti-migratory, anti-invasive, anti-metastatic and perhaps anti-angiogenic properties. On the basis of these results evidence is emerging to suggest that CBD is a potent inhibitor of both cancer growth and spread.
  • “CBD behaves as a non toxic compound; indeed oral administration of CBD 700 mg day-1 for 6 weeks did not show any overt toxicity in humans suggesting its possible exploitation for prolonged treatment.”
  • “Additionally, experimental data showed that combined treatment with CBD and Delta-9 THC could be more effective in reducing cancer cell proliferation, suggesting that the co-administration may represent a better choice for cancer therapy.”
Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. (2010)
  • “THC:CBD combination showed a more promising efficacy profile than the THC extract alone. CBD may enhance the analgesic potential of THC… which may produce anti-inflammatory effects, along with its ability to inhibit immune cell migration. Additionally, CBD may modulate the potential unwanted effects of THC…which potentially would provide a better safety profile for the THC:CBD medication in chronic use.”
  • “The THC:CBD and the THC medications were well tolerated…The clinical response to pain with THC:CBD extract oromucosal spray has not demonstrated tolerance in several clinical trials of longer duration.”
  • “We can conclude that the observed reduction in pain scores is attributable to the positive analgesic effects of THC:CBD extract. This study shows that THC:CBD extract is efficacious for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids.”
Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.
Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound, inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87-MG and T98G glioma cells through a multitarget effect.
The combination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the anticancer effects of radiation in an orthotopic murine glioma model.Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.
Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.
Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition.
Project CBD: Cancer Resources.
Established and potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in oncology.
GI Issues
GI Issues 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. (2013)
  • “CBG was effective when given both before and after the inflammatory insult, suggesting a preventive and a curative (therapeutic) beneficial effect. Significant protective effects were achieved starting from the 1 mg/kg dose (preventive protocol) and 5 mg/kg (curative protocol).”
  • “Also, CBG exerts antioxidant effects in the inflamed gut as well as in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to oxidative stress. On the whole, these results could provide a pharmacological basis to explain, at least in part, the beneficial effects of Cannabis preparations observed in IBD patients using Cannabis.”
The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation. (2004)
  • “In conclusion, this study shows that the endogenous cannabinoid system is physiologically involved in the protection against excessive inflammation in the colon, both by dampening smooth muscular irritation caused by inflammation and by controlling cellular pathways leading to inflammatory responses.”
  • “These results strongly suggest that modulation of the physiological activity of the endogenous cannabinoid system during colonic inflammation might be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of several diseases characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.”
Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation. (2012)
  • “Cannabinoids can affect both the activity and the expression of TRPV1-4 channels, with various potential therapeutic applications, including in the gastrointestinal tract.”
Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system. (2011)
  • “…together with related studies published in other journals over the last 2 years, confirm that the ECS [endocannabinoid system] and related emerging signaling systems may play a fundamental role in the control of all aspects of GI physiology and pathology.”
The effects of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis. (2010)
  • “It is well known that cannabis possesses immunosuppressive properties and that the main component responsible for this profile of action is THC…. In support of this, THC was effective in attenuating autoimmune responses in an experimental model of diabetes (multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.”
  • “Importantly, CBD has been also demonstrated to possess potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties which, together with a lack of psychotropic activity and low toxicity, make it a very promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of inflammatory and pain associated disorders, including IBD. CBD is a very potent antioxidant, which results in reduction of the level of reactive oxygen species in the course of inflammation and protection from tissue damage.”
  • “Our results demonstrated that treatment with THC and CBD reduced inflammation and motility disturbances associated with colitis. The effects of THC alone and in combination with CBD were similar to and, in some aspects, better than those of sulphasalazine, suggesting potential value of phytocannabinoids for the treatment of IBD.”
Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis. (2009)
  • “In conclusion, our results show that the degree of intestinal inflammation caused by intracolonic administration of DNBS is substantially reduced by treatment of mice with the Cannabis-derived ingredient CBD.”
Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis.
  • “…these results suggest, for the first time, that CBD, by modulating the glial-immune axis, regulates the fire up of the inflammatory reaction in the intestine thereby preventing the detrimental intestinal damage.”
  • “…in this study we demonstrate that during intestinal inflammation, CBD is able to control the inflammatory scenario and the subsequent intestinal apoptosis through the restoration of the altered glia-immune homeostasis. CBD is therefore regarded as a promising therapeutic agent that modulates the neuroimmune axis, which can be recognised as a new target in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disorders.”
Glaucoma
Glaucoma 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Neuroprotective effect of (−) Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite. (2003)
  • “THC and CBD, are similarly potent antioxidants that protect neuron cultures from glutamate-induced cell death or oxidative stress.”
  • “Our results indicate that lipid peroxidation and ONOO formation play an important role in NMDA-induced retinal neurotoxicity and cell loss in the retina, and that THC and CBD, by reducing the formation of these compounds, are effective neuroprotectants. The present studies could form the basis for the development of new topical therapies for the treatment of glaucoma.
Potential roles of (endo)cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma: from intraocular pressure control to neuroprotection. (2008)
  • “Experimental findings indicate that the endocannabinoid system contributes to the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), by modulating both production and drainage of aqueous humor.”
  • ‘Molecules capable of interfering with the ocular endocannabinoid system could offer valid alternatives to the treatment of this disease, based not only on the reduction of IOP but also on neuroprotection.”
A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol. (1990)
  • “…both cannabinoids produced a two-to three-fold increase in aqueous outflow facility. These results suggest that cannabigerol and related cannabinoids may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of glaucoma.”
Autism
Autism 150 150 admin

In May of 2018, Autism was approved as one of the qualifying conditions to receive a Michigan Medical marijuana card. This addition was largely supported by Dr. Eden Wells, Michigan’s chief medical executive, who stated: “Though there is little long-term research on the effects of marijuana on people with autism, my clinical experience suggests the drug works as a balancing agent that allows autistic patients easily overwhelmed by stimuli to maintain ‘a meditative distance’ from the world.” 

Key Research Findings

Check out a few studies that examine the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for Autism:

Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy (2019)
  • “Cannabis in ASD patients appears to be well tolerated, safe and efective option to relieve symptoms associated with ASD.”
A Novel Approach to the Symptomatic Treatment of Autism. (2010)
  • “Parents of some autistic children report that cannabis eases behavioral problems more effectively than conventional pharmaceuticals. Their anecdotal evidence should be taken seriously by medical researchers.”
  • “’As a health writer and blogger, I was intrigued when a homeopath suggested medical marijuana. Cannabis has long-documented effects as an analgesic and an anxiety modulator. Best of all, it is safe. A publication by the Autism Research Institute described cases of reduced aggression, with no permanent side effects.'”
  • “Since we started him on his ‘special tea,’ J’s face, which is sometimes a mask of pain, has softened.”
Cannabidiol Based Medical Cannabis in Children with Autism- a Retrospective Feasibility Study (2018)
  • “Following the cannabis treatment, behavioral outbreaks were much improved or very much improved (on the CGIC scale) in 61% of patients. The anxiety and communication problems were much or very much improved in 39% and 47% respectively. Disruptive behaviors, were improved by 29%…Parents reported less stress as reflected in the APSI scores, changing by 33%…Adverse events included sleep disturbances (14%) irritability (9%) and loss of appetite (9%).”
  • “This preliminary study support the feasibility of CBD based medical cannabis as a promising treatment option for refractory behavioral problems in children with ASD.”
Use of dronabinol (delta-9-THC) in autism: A prospective single-case-study with an early infantile autistic child (2010)
  • At the end of the six months, the boy’s symptom severity significantly decreased in five different categories: hyperactivity, lethargy, irritability, stereotypic behavior, and inappropriate speech.
  • “This study showed that the use of dronabinol [delta-9 THC] may be able to reduce the symptoms of autism.”
Enhancement of Anandamide-Mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Corrects Autism-Related Social Impairment (2016)
  • “We recently uncovered a signaling mechanism by which the endocannabinoid anandamide mediates the action of oxytocin, a neuropeptide that is crucial for social behavior, to control social reward. Oxytocin signaling has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and social reward is a key aspect of social functioning that is thought to be disrupted in ASD.”
  • “We found that that social impairment is corrected in two distinct mouse models by increasing anandamide activity through FAAH inhibition.” [CBD has been found to act as an FAAH inhibitor]
The Endocannabinoid System and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models (2017)
  • “The endocannabinoid (EC) system represents a major neuromodulatory system involved in the regulation of emotional responses, behavioral reactivity to context, and social interaction. Furthermore, the EC system is also affected in conditions often present in subsets of patients diagnosed with ASD, such as seizures, anxiety, intellectual disabilities, and sleep pattern disturbances.”
  • “…any potential therapeutic approach is unlikely to involve a single targeted molecule.”
Deficient adolescent social behavior following early-life inflammation is ameliorated by augmentation of anandamide signaling. (2016)
  • “In conclusion, our results suggest that FAAH inhibitors may provide a novel approach for the treatment of social disorders. Particularly, in disorders with high amygdala output and altered eCB system components (e.g. ASD), FAAH inhibition could stabilize the eCB system and decrease symptoms. FAAH inhibitors have been tested previously in the fragile X mouse model of autism, and showed promising effects in alleviating symptoms.”
Endocannabinoid signaling in autism. (2015)
  • “As supported by the evidence presented in the previous sections in humans and animal models, any potential therapeutic approach is unlikely to involve a simple choice between activation versus inhibition of the eCB system to target specific features related to autism. Any such approach will need to be precisely tuned to the developmental timeline and to the specific pathogenetic underpinnings of autism in the single patient.”
Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders.
  • “In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an endocannabinoid-CB2 signaling dysregulation in autism, implying the endocannabinoid system may represent a new treatment opportunity for autism pharmacotherapy”
Targeting the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. (2013)
  • “Moreover, CB2R has an important role in the regulation of anxiolytic-like behavior and increased susceptibility to audiogenic seizures. In conclusion, our data point to regulation of the ECS [endocannabinoid system] and mTOR pathway as a potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches in FXS.”
Issue Brief on Autism Spectrum Disorder by Minnesota Health Department (2017)
Arthritis
Arthritis 150 150 admin

Key Research Findings

Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. (2006)
  • “In the first ever controlled trial of a CBM [Cannabis-based medicine] in RA, a significant analgesic effect was observed and disease activity was significantly suppressed following Sativex treatment.”
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.(2000)
  • “…these data show that CBD, through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, has a potent anti-arthritic effect in CIA [collagen-induced arthritis].”
  • “Its [CBD] efficacy when given orally renders it an attractive candidate for the treatment of RA. The experiments in the chronic CIA model show that prolonged treatment with CBD does not induce tolerance, a phenomenon often observed with cannabinoids”
Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.
  • “…by abolishing early inflammation with prophylactic treatment, CBD attenuates [reduces] central sensitisation and neuropathic pain development in OA.”
  • Conclusion: “…CBD may be a safe therapeutic to treat OA pain locally as well as block the acute inflammatory flares that drive disease progression and joint neuropathy”
Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. (2016)
  • CBD administered by a transdermal gel reduced joint swelling, immune cell infiltration, synovial membrane thickening, and the synthesis of proinflammatory biomarkers in the Freund complete adjuvant model of inflammatory arthritis.”
Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain. (2015)
PTSD & Anxiety Disorders
PTSD & Anxiety Disorders 150 150 admin

Several studies have found that cannabis/cannabinoids are effective in relieving many of the side effects associated with PTSD, such as anxiety, depression, and sleep troubles. However, primarily due to political research barriers, there are still frustratingly few large controlled clinical trials that examine cannabis administration with PTSD patients specifically. It is encouraging to see preclinical data that suggests using endocannabinoid-targeted therapeutics like cannabis for effectively relieving symptoms commonly associated with PTSD and anxiety-disorders.

Key Research Findings

Below are some scientific studies, review articles and additional resources with evidence regarding the therapeutic value of cannabinoids for PTSD patients.

Use and effects of cannabinoids in military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (2015)
  • “…the evaluated evidence indicates that substantial numbers of military veterans with PTSD use cannabis or derivative products to control PTSD symptoms, with some patients reporting benefits in terms of reduced anxiety and insomnia and improved coping ability.”
Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naı¨ve Social Phobia Patients (2011)
  • Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert levels when compared with the control group…
Effectiveness of cannabidiol oil for pediatric anxiety and insomnia as part of posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report. (2016)
  • “CBD may exert its anti-anxiety effect by activating adenosine receptors which play a significant role in cardiovascular function and cause a broad anti-inflammatory effect throughout the body. At high concentrations, CBD directly activates the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, thereby conferring an antidepressant effect.
  • “Cannabidiol oil, an increasingly popular treatment of anxiety and sleep issues, has been documented as being an effective alternative to pharmaceutical medications. This case study provides clinical data that support the use of cannabidiol oil as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with posttraumatic stress disorder.”
Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat anxiety-related disorders (2015)
  • “Targeting the endocannabinoid system could ameliorate stress-related symptoms by treating the cognitive and emotional features of PTSD.”
  • “Because of the anxiety-relieving effects of cannabinoids, endocannabinoid signaling has a prominent role in the regulation of fear, anxiety, and stress responses…”
  • “…these preclinical results strongly suggest that exogenous cannabinoids administered in proximity to trauma exposure could prevent the development of PTSD-like symptoms.”
Plasma Concentrations of Endocannabinoids and Related Primary Fatty Acid Amides in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2013)
  • These results indicate that individuals with PTSD show significant differences in plasma concentrations of endocannabinoids and related N-acyl-ethanolamides when compared to healthy controls and to subjects who did not develop PTSD after trauma exposure.
Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype (2018)

Figure 1: Histogram of the perceived effectiveness of cannabis for the treatment of anxiety as rated by medical cannabis patients. Patients (n = 260) were asked to rate the effectiveness of cannabis for the treatment of anxiety on a Likert scale from 0 to 10, 0 being not effective at all and 10 being extremely effective. Average value was 8.03 (7.83–8.22 CI, p = 0.05) with a standard deviation of 1.60.

  • Cannabis can be used as an effective anxiolytic agent, but further investigations are required to find which chemotypes or doses are anxiolytic, and which are anxiogenic. From a broader perspective, cannabis can be produced sustainably, and its many uses could help us to preserve the biosphere we all need to survive, relieving anxiety worldwide.”
Elevated brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in post-traumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study. (2013)
  • “These results suggest that abnormal CB1 receptor-mediated anandamide [AEA] signaling is implicated in the etiology of PTSD, and provide a promising neurobiological model to develop novel, evidence-based pharmacotherapies for this disorder.”
Preliminary, Open-Label, Pilot Study of Add-On Oral D9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol in Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2014)
  • “This is the first report of the use of orally absorbable D9 -THC as add-on treatment in patients with chronic PTSD. The results show good tolerance and safety, reduction of PTSD hyperarousal symptoms, improved sleep quality and reduced frequency of nightmares.”
Posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample. (2011)
  • “After adjusting for sociodemographic variables… PTSD diagnoses were associated with increased odds of lifetime history of cannabis use as well as past year daily cannabis use.”
The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (2009)
  • The majority of patients (72%) receiving nabilone experienced either cessation of nightmares or a significant reduction in nightmare intensity. Subjective improvement in sleep time, the quality of sleep, and the reduction of daytime flashbacks and nightsweats were also noted by some patients. The results of this study indicate the potential benefits of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in patients with PTSD experiencing poor control of nightmares with standard pharmacotherapy.”
  • Highly recommended seminar with a series of informative mini lectures:
    • Medical Cannabis Research Barriers – Dr. Sue Sisley  (~13:00-39:00)
    • Traditional & Current PTSD Studies -Marcel Bonn Miller, Research Health Science Specialist with National Center for PTSD (~39:00-57:00)
    • Dosing Guidelines & Recommendations- Dr. Dustin Sulak (~58:00-116:00)
    • Clinical Application- Dr. Michelle Sexton, Founder and Chief Science Officer of Phytalab (~116:00-end)
Reductions in Circulating Endocannabinoid Levels in Individuals with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Exposure to the World Trade Center Attacks. (2013)
  • “…That both PTSD and depression are stress-related mental illnesses suggests that reduced concentrations of 2-AG could represent a peripheral biomarker of vulnerability to stress-related mood and anxiety disorders.”
Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. (2017)
The endocannabinoid system provides an avenue for evidence‐based treatment development for PTSD. (2013)
  • “These biological findings, in the context of known involvement of the eCB [endocannabinoid] system in emotional memory extinction and recall, stress buffering and adaptation, as well as HPA function, suggest the possibility of a pivotal role for the eCB system in PTSD.”
Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s Disease 150 150 admin

There is a significant amount of evidence regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids in preventing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and the symptoms associated with it. Cannabinoids as a viable treatment option for those with Alzheimers’ is further supported by U.S. government funded research that concluded THC & CBD are powerful anti-oxidant and neuroprotectant agents.

Key Research Findings:

A collection of summaries, quotes and/or conclusions from relevant scientific studies and systematic reviews.

Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants. (2003)
  • In 2003, the US Department of Health and Human Serves secured a medical patent on cannabinoids. The following is a summary: “The cannabinoids [CBD & THC primarily] are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia.”
Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa,on b-amyloid-induced toxicityin PC12 cells. (2004)
  • “The results reported that cannabidiol exerts a combination of neuro-protective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects against b-amyloid-induced toxicity. Given the low toxicity of cannabinol shown in humans, this non-psychoactive component of marijuana may play an important role in counteracting neuronal cell death occurring in Alzheimers disease.” 
Cannabinoids for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: moving toward the clinic. (2014)
  • “…endocannabinoid signaling has been demonstrated to modulate numerous concomitant pathological processes, including neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress.”
  • “Interestingly, neuronal damage increases the production of endocannabinoids, which may provide a defense mechanism against toxicity.”
Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study. (2016)
  • Conclusion: “Adding MCO (Medical Cannabis Oil) to AD patients’ pharmacotherapy is safe and a promising treatment option.”
Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids (2016)
  • “The beta amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregating [pro-inflammatory]  proteins in the brain increase with age and are frequently found within neurons.  Cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] stimulate the removal of intraneuronal Aβ, block the inflammatory response, and are protective.” 
Cannabinoids remove plaque-forming Alzheimer’s proteins from brain cells (Article. 2016)
  • “The researchers found that high levels of amyloid beta were associated with cellular inflammation and higher rates of neuron death. They demonstrated that exposing the cells to THC reduced amyloid beta protein levels and eliminated the inflammatory response from the nerve cells caused by the protein, thereby allowing the nerve cells to survive.”